From 1000 AD to Galileo's conviction in 1632,
Italian contributions to science (measured at the scientist's 40th birthday) continued on fairly strong for the rest of the 17th Century, so the Galileo trial impact wasn't immediate. Of course, the 17th Century was like Andy Warhol's factory -- everybody was a genius! (Except, in the 17th Century there really were geniuses throughout Europe). But, in Italy slowly things sloooowed down, as they sped up elsewhere.
We're not used to things getting more boring and unproductive, but it has been a common tendency throughout history, and one we may get familiar with again.